Showing posts from 2014

Research Areas in Vehicular Area Networks (VANETs)

Research Areas in Vehicular Area Networks (VANETs)
Dedicated Short Range CommunicationsNetwork sensing for collision avoidance systemsMobile network between Vehicles similar to the one used by police,fire and military vehicles for co-ordinationLocation tracker for emergency services and other such coordination technologies.coordinated traffic guidance system by which vehicles can coordinate and guide themselves through an alternative route or an immobile jam.Anti-collision system.

How to generate .exe file from .m file?

Q) How to Generate an windows executable file (.exe) from a MATLAB script file (.m)?

This process of converting non-executable files to executable/sub-executable files is called mexing.

MATLAB is supporting this mexing process, by its MATLAB COMPILER. The MATLAB COMPILER license is required to work with it.

Go to the Command Window of MATLAB, and type

mex setup
mcc -m  filename.m 
               % this command generates a .exe file
ls filenae
! cmd &

If the corresponding .dll file must be generated, use the same process listed above, replacing the second line with

mcc -l filename.m
               % this instruction generates a .dll file

Apart from these, MATLAB COMPILER can also generate .hdl file.

Research areas to work in Wireless Communication

Here, i tried to present few current research sub-areas, for working in wireless communication.
5th Generation Gossips: 1. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
2. Filter Bank Multi-Carriers
3. Millimeter Wave
4. 3-D massive MIMO
5. Cognitive Radio & Dynamic Spectrum Access
6. Super Wide-band Spectrum
7. Smaller Cell & Ultra dense Het-Nets
8. Multiple Technology Carrier Aggregation
9. Adaptive/Dynamic/Hybrid Beam-forming 
10.OFDM- Spectrum Sculpting
11. Cooperative Relaying
12. D2D: Device to Device communication
13. WiGig

Research projects:
1. Autonomously Reconfigurable Communications Platform
2. TV White Space Mesh Network
3. Portable Early Crackdown Detection Systems
4. Pressure Sensors for sleep and bedsore Monitoring
5. Driving cost reduction using Mesh Networks
6. Cooperative Node to Communicate
7. what will 5G be?
8. Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication: Fundamentals with Applications to LTE
9. Predicting 5G: Performance Analysis of Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks
10. THz Imaging Pro…

Free Research publishing journals

List of Zero dollar publishing journals:
Here, follows a list of research publication Journals which doesn't charge for publishing of the articles. But, all of them are peer-reviewed journals.
There may be various reasons of an author to publish his/her research idea/work in a zero-dollar publishing journal.
1.International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering (IJCCE)
If your paper gets accepted after peer review, the publishing will be free of charge. For papers which are recommended as excellent papers by the editorial board, we will provide extra bonus from 50$-100$ as reward.

2. International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering (IJCCE)

If your paper gets accepted after peer review, the publishing will be free of charge. For papers which are recommended as excellent papers by the editorial board, we will provide extra bonus from 50$-100$ as reward.
3. Lecture Notes on Information Theory
There is no charge for publishing papers in LNIT by now. LNIT…

NS 2 - Tutorial for beginners 2

NS2 program for simulation of TCP packets in a network set ns [new Simulator]

set nf [open out.nam w]
$ns namtrace-all $nf

set nt [open w]
$ns trace-all $nt

proc finish {} {
        global ns nf
        $ns flush-trace
        close $nf
        exec nam out.nam &
        exit 0

set n0 [$ns node]
set n1 [$ns node]
set n2 [$ns node]
set n3 [$ns node]

$ns duplex-link $n0 $n1 10Mb 10ms DropTail
$ns duplex-link $n1 $n2 1Mb 10ms DropTail
$ns duplex-link $n3 $n1 10Mb 10ms DropTail

$ns duplex-link-op $n0 $n1 orient right-down
$ns duplex-link-op $n1 $n2 orient right
$ns duplex-link-op $n3 $n1 orient right-up

set tcp [new Agent/TCP]
$ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp

set ftp [new Application/FTP]
#$ftp set packet_size_ 4.5Mb
$ftp set interval_ 0.05
$ftp attach-agent $tcp

set sink [new Agent/TCPSink]
$ns attach-agent $n2 $sink

$ns connect $tcp $sink

$ns at 0.3 "$ftp start"
$ns at 3.0 "finish"

$ns run

NS2 program for simulation of UDP packets in a network set ns [new…

NS 2 - Tutorial for beginners 1

Explanation for a Simple ScriptStep 1: To start we have to set a few variables like simulator object, trace file and object, nam file and object: set ns [new Simulator] This would set the simulator with the simulator object which is to be accessed in the script. Step 2: Then, to set the nam (network animation) file with that 'ns' object and associate with it: set nf [open out.nam w]$nsnamtrace-all$nfset tr [open w]$nstrace-all $tr This would set the trace file and would connect to the simulator. The trace file is required to analyze the various packets which are send, received type of application used etc. Step 3: Now the nodes could be set as many as you want, for loop could be used if many nodes are to be made.set n0 [$nsnode] Step 4: Creating connection for the various nodes with each other with the band width and rate.$nsduplex-link$n0$n110Mb 10ms DropTail Step 5: The nodes could be given with various orientations with this option. right, right-up and right down could be u…

Analog Communications lab MATLAB Programs

%% Amplitude Modulation And Demodulation
% Name:
% R.No:
%% closing and clearing commands
close all
clear all
%% Initialization
fs=8000; % sampling frequency
fm=20; % message signal frequency
fc=500; % carrier signal frequency
t=[0:.1*fs]/fs; % time index
%% Message signal Generation
Am=1; % message signal amplitude
m=Am*cos(2*pi*fm*t); % message signal
xlabel('time-->'), ylabel('amplitude')
title('Modulating or Message signal(fm=20Hz)');
%% Carrier signal Generation
Ac=1; % carrier signal amplitude
c=Ac*cos(2*pi*fc*t); % carrier signal
xlabel('time-->'), ylabel('amplitude')
title('Carrier signal(fc=500Hz)');
%% Under Modulation
ka=0.5; % modulation sensitivity
u=ka*Am; % modulation Index
xlabel('time-->'), ylabel('amplitude')
title('Under Modulated signal(ka.Am=0.5)')…

List of Websites to get free e-books

Here follows the list of websites to download e-books for free.


These two websites offer 4 to 5 free downloads per day. Best advantage is that we need not go for any sign-in process or clicking on an advertisement.

In this website, apart from downloading in pdf format, one can download in many other e-book formats.





This website provides file in word (.doc), powerpoint (.ppt) and pdf file formats.

This website provides books in pdf format, but we should wait for 12-15 seconds and enter a Captcha code. But no need to sign-in.

This is another decent website of downloading ebooks in .pdf format, with no advertisement and no signing in.

This is one of the best websites for downloading technical and professional certification related books. No sign-in, no captcha and no disturbi…

MATLAB tutorial for Begineers Part 3

click here for Part 2                     click here for Part 4

Working With MATLAB Type the following following commands in the Command Window, and observe(verify) their corresponding results  12

ans =


% commenting operator in matlab


a =


a=23; %; is a output suppressor operator


Your variables are:

a    ans

  Name      Size            Bytes  Class     Attributes

  a         1x1                 8  double            
  ans       1x1                 8  double            

who---- This command lists the variables in workspace.

whos----This command details the variables in workspace.


ans =



ans =



mul =


; is the output suppressing operator


Your variables are:

a    ans  div  mul


div =



ans =



ans =



ans =



ans =


%   \ is the inverted division operator a\b=b/a

ans =



ans =



ans =


% exponential rep…

MATLAB tutorial for Begineers Part 2

click here for Part 1 click here for Part 3

1. How to open Matlab
    Method1: click on matlab shortcut in start menu or on desktop
    Method2: for windows os ::::Press windows+R--->type cmd--->type "matlab"
             for linux os:::::::go to terminal/Konsole--->type "matlab"

Note: It is recommended not to do any action, atleast-for-a-vial, while opening MATLAB because Matlab consumes more RAM while invoking.

MATLAB tutorial for Begineers Part 1

MATLAB is abbreviation for MATrix LABoratory.

MATLAB is an integrated development environment and computer language that enables users to perform computationally intensive tasks.  The software is used for numerical computation tasks, visualization, and mathematical programming.
For more details, see

Latest release of MATLAB is R2014a.

As the name emphasis, MATLAB considers every variable/value in terms of matrices.
MatLab vs c:MatLab is not a programming language, but it is a scripting language. In simple English, you use English-like commands in the MatLab program; whereas corresponding c program will run in the background.

So, MatLab program is slower than c program; but is more flexible and lightweight than the former. 

The latest MATLAB constitutes FOUR platforms, within its environment.
1. M-file/Script file platform
2. Simulink
3. GUIDE- Graphical User Interface IDE(Integrated Development  Envinirment)


SUMO installation in linux (Debian/Ubuntu/Mint)

SUMO-Simulation of Urban MobilitySUMO an open source, portal, microscopic, multi-modal road traffic simulation.It allows for intermodal simulation including pedestrians and comes with a large set of tools for scenario creation. It allows to simulate as to how a given traffic demand which consists of single vehicles moves through a given road network.The simulator allows to address a large set of traffic management topics.It is purely microscopic: each vehicle is modeled explicitly, has an own route, and moves individually through the network.SUMO Installation Procedure:Installation in Linux and mac OSStep I: Install two pre-requisite packages to build SUMO with GUI. Go to terminal and run:$ sudo apt-get install libgdal1-dev proj libxerces-c2-dev $ sudo apt-get install libfox-1.6-dev libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev Step II: If you are using Unbuntu 12.04 or older versions, as it doesn't ship with libgdal package, create a symbolic link:$ sudo ln -s /usr/lib/ /usr/li…

how to know whether my linux system is 32 bit or 64 bit ?

Generally, during any software installation, one gets puzzled regarding the system architecture i.e., whether the PC/desktop is 32 bit or 64 bit build...

Simplest way to know is here.

Step1: Open the terminal.

Step 2: type uname -a
Result for 32-bit Ubuntu: Linux discworld 2.6.38-8-generic #42-Ubuntu SMP Mon Apr 11 03:31:50 UTC 2011 i686 i686 i386GNU/Linux whereas the 64-bit Ubuntu will show: Linux discworld 2.6.38-8-generic #42-Ubuntu SMP Mon Apr 11 03:31:50 UTC 2011 x86_64 x86_64x86_64 GNU/Linux
Identify whether it is i386 or x86_64; correspondingly it is 32 bit or 64 bit build architecture, respectively.

Note: There are many other alternative ways in Linux, to determine the system architecture; but, this is probably the simplest way.

NS-2 related popular blogs

Blogs play a vital role in letting us understand many complex issues in simple words. Even ns-2 is not exception for it. Here, follows few popular ns-2 blogs.

Popular NS-2 blogs: 1. Marc Greis' Tutorial

2. ns2Blogger
3. ns2 by pradeep kumar
4. durgeshkshirsagar Blog
5. elmurod
6. enggeddu
7. Karthick Siva's Blog
8. ns2 tutorials blog
9. script for black hole attack
10. Articles by norbert_jxl
11. ns-2sourcecode blog
12. byuvraj blog on ns2, nam and xgraph
13. Wireless Network security blog
14. Adding new packet types to NS-2
15. How to send user data in NS2
16. NS2 Wireless Sample Programs

TCL to C++ conversion:

PS: I request you all to post in comments any such blogs, just as to help the ns-2 research community.

How to send a fake(or Phishing) Email

Phishing Email, or a Fake Email.
Yes, anyone can make it.
You can send a mail to anyone using others' Email ID.
Yes, this can be done by any layman, without hacking their Email ID, using Email forging tool.

Step 1: click this link of democraticprogrammers.

Step 2: Enter Receivers' mail ID, and your proposed fake Email ID, followed by a fake name and subject.

Step 3: Then, click the send button, and it was over.

Note: What an Idea! One Email can change your life. So, be careful when using this!!! 

Tcl tutorial for Begineers

Initially, we should get ns or tcl shell installed to work with tcl script. If you didn't install ns2, click here for the installation procedure. Else, follow the tutorial.  After installing ns-2, type ns in terminal. Then, there appears % symbol, which symbolizes the invokement of tcl shell script. Note(optional): TCL scripting individually can be practiced with in Linux system with tcl shell scripting.

NS-2 Network Simulator

For the latest information about the ns Network Simulator, go to the ns manual ay  or .
For examples, go to the downloaded ns package folder at ns-2/tcl/ex. In addition, other tutorials include the Marc Greis’s tutorial and the tutorial by Jae Chung - Mark Claypool.
Ns simulator is based on two languages: C++ as the back-end and the oTcl (object-oriented version of tool command language, tcl) as the front-end. NS is a discrete event simulator, where the advance of time depends on the timing of events, which are maintained by a scheduler.
Some Esssential Commands List:
ns – command to verify the installation of tcl shell script and ns network simulator ns-version – command to return the ns version ns-random – command to return a random number, uniformly distributed between [0-(231-1)].
ns-random varvar  is used to set the seed to random number generator.

MannaSim Script generator framework installation procedure

MannaSim framework It is the Script generator used mainly for wireless sensor network research.It was written in TCL and C++ for NS-2 network simulator. It is used for creating TCL scripts for the front-end activity done in MannaSim framework GUI.
MannaSim Installation:  It can be installed in two ways:  1. Installing Mannasim patch   (easier method) 2. Using Mannasim Source code Method 1 - Installing Mannasim patch:This is easier way for installing Mannsim; But, ensure that you didn't modify the ns-2 distribution files. At the time of writing this blog, the ns-2 distribution is with version 2.29. Step 1:Click here to download ns-2.29 all-in-one package from ns site.
Step 2:Click here to download MannaSim Framework ns-2.29 patch.
Step 3: Type the following command on the ns-allinone-2.29 folder:
patch -p1 < file_name.diff Step 4: Install ns-2.29 as usual typing ns-allinone-2.29 folder:
Method 2 - Using Mannasim Source Code:Step 1: Download Manasim.tar.gz file
Step 2: untar…